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Image of the Month (March 2015)



An option for countries which are not technological frontrunners and still hit by the recession: Environmental Fiscal Devaluation

If resources and energy, regardless of their origin, are taxed on the consumer side and social security contributions are decreased accordingly (guaranteeing revenue neutrality and with adequate re-distributive compensation schemes for low income households), import prices would rise relatively to export prices, hence „Environmental Fiscal Devaluation“. The effect of this scenario woud be a GDP which would rise above the base case till 2050. Emissions, energy consumption and domestic material consumption (DMC) per capita tend to decrease slightly compared to today, leading to a decoupling of growth and resource use.

Slide from Kurt Kratena's presentation at the WWWforEurope Conference on Social and Environmental Progress. See WWWforEurope Policy Brief No. 6 by Kurt Kratena and Mark Sommer for details. Please note that the figure above shows updated results compared to the policy brief.


Image of the Month (February 2015)



An option for competitive and environmentally ambitious countries: A Green Tax on production

The model encompasses a tax for producers on emissions and resources on an increasing scale while having revenue-neutrality by decreasing social security contributions, with adequate re-distributive compensation schemes for low income households. The effect would be that GDP till 2050 would grow a little slower than in a business-as-usual scenario, but energy consumption, domestic material consumption (DMC) per capita and GHG emissions would decrease compared to today – which means that in this model absolute decoupling of growth and resources would be achieved. 

Slide from Kurt Kratena's presentation at the WWWforEurope Conference on Social and Environmental Progress. See WWWforEurope Policy Brief No. 6 by Kurt Kratena and Mark Sommer for details.


Image of the Month (January 2015)



While men with children tend to do more paid labour than men without children, the opposite is true for women: women without children have higher employment rates than women with children.

The image uses Labour Force Survey Data for 2012 and shows the differences in employment rates of men and women within the age group 20-49 without the presence of any children and with the presence of a child aged 0-6. Read more in: Janneke Plantenga, „Searching for welfare, work and gender equality“, WWWforEurope Working Paper No. 59, April 2014


Image of the Month (December 2014)



Innovations spur employment, no matter whether they are green or not, whether they are in manufacturing or in services and whether they are product or process innovations.

The figure shows results from the Mannheim Innovation Panel for Germany for the years 2006-2008. Read more in: Georg Licht and Bettina Peters, "Do green innovations stimulate employment? - Firm-level evidence from Germany", WWWforEurope Working Paper No. 53, February 2014


Image of the Month (November 2014)



Countries which are more open to trade have higher expenditures on labour market policies to compensate losers of globalisation and trade liberalisation.

The image shows the slightly positive correlation between the volume of trade (as % of GDP) and public expenditures on Active Labour Market Programs (as % of GDP) in OECD countries, 1985-2011. Read more in: Zareh Asatryan, Sebastian Braun, Wolfgang Lechthaler, Mariya Mileva and Catia Montagna, "Compensating the losers of free trade", WWWforEurope Working Paper No. 63, June 2014


Image of the Month (September 2014)



Imbalances will persist as long as there is no or too little wage growth in countries with growing current account surpluses.

European countries are clustered according to their wealth and their current account development in the years 2000 to 2007. In Groups 1 to 3 (blue, red, green) countries’ GDP per capita was larger than 80 percent of the European average, in Group 4 (purple) it was lower. Group 1 countries had growing current account surpluses, Group 2 still had surpluses, but declining ones, and Group 3 and 4 had current account deficits. It is evident from the figure that wage growth in Group 1 was below productivity growth while in all other groups, with increasing differences, labour compensation growth was well above productivity growth.

Graph from Stefan Ederer and Peter Reschenhofer, Macroeconomic Imbalances in the EU, WWWforEurope Working Paper No. 42, September 2013, Source: AMECO and own calculations. The grey lines indicate group averages.